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名师解析高考英语全国卷阅读试题

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【简介】以下是小编为大家收集的名师解析高考英语全国卷阅读试题(共10篇),欢迎参阅,希望可以帮助到有需要的朋友。在此,感谢网友“一心想中彩票”投稿本文!

名师解析高考英语全国卷阅读试题

篇1:名师解析高考英语全国卷阅读试题

名师解析高考英语全国卷阅读试题

今年全国卷阅读理解遵循《高考考试说明》,题型与往年保持了一致,难度亦基本相当。文章本身和所附问题总词数约2100词,与往年-2200的词数持平,需要考生的良好应试心理和比较深厚的阅读功底。大部分题目在原文中均有明确对应,命题对我们课堂上强调的“找”信息的能力要求体现得相当充分。如果考生在平时学习中有长时间(1-2小时)阅读大量信息的训练,考场上这五篇英语文章还是能够轻松应对的。

阅读题目全面考察了细节题、推断题、主旨题、词义猜测题。在选材上覆盖面广,语言地道,文体特征鲜明。在命题老师的精心设计下,这一部分中规中矩、波澜不惊,较好完成了考察目的:

1 体裁:应用文、记叙文、说明文各一篇,新闻两篇;

2 题材:响应时代主题,人文情怀跃然纸上,关注了童年的人情温暖、广告的历史、大洋彼岸老美心有灵犀的菜园等;

3 题目设置的考察点也全都落在上课时讲解过的“重要信息”当中,尤其是说明文,不需全文阅读即可答题。

文章体裁和主要内容介绍

记叙:温情怀念作者幼时全家与送奶工的友谊。(A篇)

说明文:一篇饶有趣味的关于广告历史的`文章。(B篇)

新闻:一项社会运动TPCGB的缘起和影响。(C篇)

新闻:高生活成本下美国人后院种菜的欢乐生活。(D篇)

应用文:关于学习和培训的广告(E篇)

备考Tip

1、保证阅读量,每天坚持阅读。

2、精泛结合,精读以近年真题为主。

3、练限时阅读,35分钟完成5篇总词数约2200的文章。

4、注意总结各题型答题规律。

5、单词就是得分力,只要背就能提分,同时掌握考纲要求的构词法知识。

五点钟声敲响,高考终于告一段落。小妞小鬼们,尽情享受青春,享受这个夏天吧!

(责任编辑:唐悦芝)

篇2:考研英语真题阅读理解试题及名师解析

考研英语真题阅读理解试题及名师解析(28)

Stratford-on-Avon, as we all know, has only one industry-William Shakespeare-but there are two distinctly separate and increasingly hostile branches. There is the Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC), which presents superb productions of the plays at the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre on the Avon. And there are the townsfolk who largely live off the tourists who come, not to see the plays, but to look at Anne Hathaway’s Cottage, Shakespeare’s birthplace and the other sights。

The worthy residents of Stratford doubt that the theatre adds a penny to their revenue. They frankly dislike the RSC’s actors, them with their long hair and beards and sandals and noisiness. It’s all deliciously ironic when you consider that Shakespeare, who earns their living, was himself an actor (with a beard) and did his share of noise -making。

The tourist streams are not entirely separate. The sightseers who come by bus―and often take in Warwick Castle and Blenheim Palace on the side―don’t usually see the plays, and some of them are even surprised to find a theatre in Stratford. However, the playgoers do manage a little sight-seeing along with their playgoing. It is the playgoers, the RSC contends, who bring in much of the town’s revenue because they spend the night (some of them four or five nights) pouring cash into the hotels and restaurants. The sightseers can take in everything and get out of town by nightfall。

The townsfolk don’t see it this way and local council does not contribute directly to the subsidy of the Royal Shakespeare Company. Stratford cries poor traditionally. Nevertheless every hotel in town seems to be adding a new wing or cocktail lounge. Hilton is building its own hotel there, which you may be sure will be decorated with Hamlet Hamburger Bars, the Lear Lounge, the Banquo Banqueting Room, and so forth, and will be very expensive。

Anyway, the townsfolk can’t understand why the Royal Shakespeare Company needs a subsidy. (The theatre has broken attendance records for three years in a row. Last year its 1,431 seats were 94 per cent occupied all year long and this year they’ll do better。) The reason, of course, is that costs have rocketed and ticket prices have stayed low。

It would be a shame to raise prices too much because it would drive away the young people who are Stratford’s most attractive clientele. They come entirely for the plays, not the sights. They all seem to look alike (though they come from all over) ― lean, pointed, dedicated faces, wearing jeans and sandals, eating their buns and bedding down for the night on the flagstones outside the theatre to buy the 20 seats and 80 standing-room tickets held for the sleepers and sold to them when the box office opens at 10:30 a.m。

26. From the first two paragraphs , we learn that

[A] the townsfolk deny the RSC ’ s contribution to the town’s revenue。

[B] the actors of the RSC imitate Shakespeare on and off stage。.

[C] the two branches of the RSC are not on good terms。

[D] the townsfolk earn little from tourism。

27. It can be inferred from Para 3 that

[A] the sightseers cannot visit the Castle and the Palace separately。

[B] the playgoers spend more money than the sightseers。

[C] the sightseers do more shopping than the playgoers。

[D] the playgoers go to no other places in town than the theater。

28. By saying “Stratford cries poor traditionally” (Line 2, Paragraph 4), the author implies that

[A] Stratford cannot afford the expansion projects。

[B] Stratford has long been in financial difficulties。

[C] the town is not really short of money。

[D] the townsfolk used to be poorly paid。

29. According to the townsfolk, the RSC deserves no subsidy because

[A] ticket prices can be raised to cover the spending。

[B] the company is financially ill-managed。

[C] the behavior of the actors is not socially acceptable。

[D] the theatre attendance is on the rise。

30. From the text we can conclude that the author

[A] is supportive of both sides。

[B] favors the townsfolk’s view。

[C] takes a detached attitude。

[D] is sympathetic to the RSC。

名师解析

26. From the first two paragraphs, we learn that   从前两段,我们可以得知

[A] the townsfolk deny the RSC ’s contribution to the town’s revenue。

镇上的人否认皇家莎士比亚剧院公司对小镇的收入有什么贡献。

[B] the actors of the RSC imitate Shakespeare on and off stage。

皇家莎士比亚剧院公司的演员台上台下都模仿莎士比亚。

[C] the two branches of the RSC are not on good terms。

皇家莎士比亚剧院公司的两个分支相处不融洽。

[D] the townsfolk earn little from tourism。

镇上的人从旅游业中没有挣到什么钱。

【答案】 A

【考点】 事实细节题。

【分析】 本题的关键词“前两段”明确告诉我们答案的得出必须要通读完这两段。“众所周知,埃文河上的斯特拉特福德镇只有一个产业――威廉・莎士比亚,但是却有两个完全分离并且越来越敌对的分歧双方。一方是皇家莎士比亚剧院公司,它在埃文河的莎士比亚剧院上演精彩的戏剧作品。另一方则是当地的居民,他们很大程度上依赖那些不是来看戏而是来参观莎士比亚出生地以及其它景点的游客而生活。斯特拉特福德镇知名的居民怀疑剧院没有对他们收入的增加做出过哪怕是一分钱的贡献。他们公开表示讨厌莎士比亚剧院公司的演员,他们的长头发、胡须、拖鞋以及吵闹声。极具讽刺意味的是,他们赖以谋生的莎士比亚当年就是个留着胡须的演员,而且吵吵闹闹也有他的.一份。”[A]“镇上的人否认皇家莎士比亚剧院公司对小镇有什么贡献”意思是合适的,从第二段第一句话可以得出这样的结论。选项[B]“皇家莎士比亚剧院公司的演员台上台下都模仿莎士比亚”是不正确的,因为文中仅仅说斯特拉特福德镇居民讨厌他们的这些打扮,但是没有说这些演员是在模仿莎士比亚,更不用说什么台上台下了。选项[C]的问题出在它把“two branches”的意思弄错了,这两个分歧方指的是莎士比亚行业的两个组成部分,一个是剧院,一个是居民。选项[D]说“镇上的人没有挣到钱,”显然和原文不符,因为“他们的生计靠的就是那些来参观莎士比亚故居的人”,其中“live off”可意为“靠……生活”。

27. It can be inferred from Paragraph 3 that  从第三段中可以推断出

[A] the sightseers cannot visit the Castle and the Palace separately。

观光客不能分别参观城堡或者宫殿。

[B] the playgoers spend more money than the sightseers。

来看戏的人花的钱比观光者花费多。

[C] the sightseers do more shopping than the playgoers。

观光者的购物比来看戏的人多。

[D] the playgoers go to no other places in town than the theater。

来看戏的人除了剧院哪里也不去。

【答案】 B

【考点】 推断题。

【分析】 本段关键词“第三段”。[B]试图比较谁花的钱多,可以定位到第三段第二和第三句,文中提及观光客通常不看戏。而来看戏的人通常的确会进行一些观光。而且后一句说“剧院认为,他们为镇上带来了最多的税收,因为来看戏的人会花很多的钱在酒店和饭店。”这样一来不难判断,[B]是正确的。[A]中提到城堡、宫殿,可以定位到第三段第二句,“乘车来的观光客经常会顺道去参观沃维城堡和布伦亨宫。他们通常不看戏,有人甚至会惊讶地发现在斯特拉特福德镇居然有剧院”。“on the side”的意思就是“另外,兼职”,说明这些人是顺道来看看这些城堡、宫殿什么的,不是特意来看戏的。这推断不出“观光客不能单独参观城堡或者宫殿”这一层意思。至于[C],第三段并没有提到观光客的购物多少问题,也就无从谈起谁的购物多。至于[D],显然是不正确的,并不是什么地方都不去,因为第三句已经提到,来看戏的人通常的确会进行一些观光。

28. By saying“Stratford cries poor traditionally”(Line 2, Paragraph 4), the author implies that

作者提到“Stratford cries poor traditionally”(第四段第二行)的含义是

[A] Stratford cannot afford the expansion projects。

斯特拉特福德镇支付不了扩张项目的费用。

[B] Stratford has long been in financial difficulties。

斯特拉特福德镇一直财政困难。

[C] the town is not really short of money。

斯特拉特福德镇并不是真的缺钱。

[D] the townsfolk used to

篇3:考研英语真题阅读理解试题及名师解析

考研英语真题阅读理解试题及名师解析(27)

In spite of “endless talk of difference,” American society is an amazing machine for homogenizing people. There is “the democratizing uniformity of dress and discourse, and the casualness and absence of difference” characteristic of popular culture. People are absorbed into “a culture of consumption” launched by the 19th-century department stores that offered “vast arrays of goods in an elegant atmosphere. Instead of intimate shops catering to a knowledgeable elite。” these were stores “anyone could enter, regardless of class or background. This turned shopping into a public and democratic act。” The mass media, advertising and sports are other forces for homogenization。

Immigrants are quickly fitting into this common culture, which may not be altogether elevating but is hardly poisonous. Writing for the National Immigration Forum, Gregory Rodriguez reports that today’s immigration is neither at unprecedented level nor resistant to assimilation. In immigrants were 9.8 percent of population; in 1900, 13.6 percent .In the 10 years prior to 1990, 3.1 immigrants arrived for every 1,000 residents; in the 10years prior to 1890, 9.2 for every 1,000. Now, consider three indices of assimilation-language, home ownership and intermarriage。

The 1990 Census revealed that “a majority of immigrants from each of the fifteen most common countries of origin spoke English ‘well’ or ‘very well’ after ten years of residence。” The children of immigrants tend to be bilingual and proficient in English. “By the third generation, the original language is lost in the majority of immigrant families。”  Hence the deion of America as a “graveyard” for languages. By foreignCborn immigrants who had arrived before 1970 had a home ownership rate of 75.6 percent, higher than the 69.8 percent rate among native-born Americans。

Foreign-born Asians and Hispanics “have higher rates of intermarriage than do U.S.Cborn whites and blacks。” By the third generation, one third of Hispanic women are married to non-Hispanics, and 41 percent of AsianCAmerican women are married to non-Asians。

Rodriguez notes that children in remote villages around the world are fans of superstars like Arnold Schwarzenegger and Garth Brooks, yet “some Americans fear that immigrants living within the United States remain somehow immune to the nation’s assimilative power。”

Are there divisive issues and pockets of seething anger in America? Indeed. It is big enough to have a bit of everything. But particularly when viewed against America’s turbulent past, today’s social indices hardly suggest a dark and deteriorating social environment。

21. The word “homogenizing”(Line 2, Paragraph 1) most probably means

[A] identifying.  [B] associating.  [C] assimilating.  [D] monopolizing。

22. According to the author, the department stores of the 19th century

[A] played a role in the spread of popular culture。

[B] became intimate shops for common consumers。

[C] satisfied the needs of a knowledgeable elite。

[D] owed its emergence to the culture of consumption。

23. The text suggests that immigrants now in the U.S。

[A] are resistant to homogenization。

[B] exert a great influence on American culture。

[C] are hardly a threat to the common culture。

[D] constitute the majority of the population。

24. Why are Arnold Schwarzenegger and Garth Brooks mentioned in Paragraph 5?

[A] To prove their popularity around the world。

[B] To reveal the public’s fear of immigrants。

[C] To give examples of successful immigrants。

[D] To show the powerful influence of American culture。

25. In the author’s opinion, the absorption of immigrants into American society is

[A] rewarding.  [B] successful.  [C]. fruitless.  [D]. harmful。

名师解析

21. The word “homogenizing” (Line 2, Paragraph 1) most probably means

“homogenizing”(第一段第二行)一词的大致意思是

[A] identifying.  识别 确认        [B] associating.  联系,联合

[C] assimilating.  吸收,同化      [D] monopolizing.  独占,垄断

【答案】 C

【考点】 词义题。

【分析】 本题的答案直接可以定位到第一句话。文章说“尽管人们不停地谈论差异”,用到了表示转折的“in spite of”,后面显然就是与前面的意思相反了。差异的反面自然是相同。如果考生没有把握,只要继续读两句,就会发现作者描述的都是一个同化了的社会的特征。而“homogenize”这个单词,如果从词根来分析,也不难判断。“homo”表示相同的,比如同性恋就是“homosexual”,而“homogenize”的原意就是“使均匀,均质化”,所以只有[C]“assimilate”这个单词合适。“assimilate”的本意是“吸收,消化”,后引申为“使相同、使相象”,以及“把(移民或文化出色的群体)同化到盛行的文化中”。[A]“identify”一般表示对身份的“识别,确认”,不合题意。[B]“associate”表示“联系,联合”,不合题意。[D]“monopolize”(独占, 垄断),这个单词由“mono(单一)+pole(极)”构成,用在本处意思不符合。

22. According to the author, the department stores of the 19th-century

在作者看来,19世纪的商场

[A] played a role in the spread of popular culture.  在传播流行文化方面发挥了作用。

[B] became intimate shops for common consumers.  成为了和普通消费者关系亲密的商店。

[C] satisfied the needs of a knowledgeable elite.  满足了知识精英的需要。

[D] owed its emergence to the culture of consumption.  其出现归功于消费文化。

【答案】 A

【考点】 事实细节题。

【分析】 题干关键词“department stores”出现在第一段第三句,该句子的意思是“人们沉迷于一种始于19世纪的商场的消费文化”。随后进一步解释说“商场和那些精品店不一样,是人人都可以去的,购物变成了一种民主和公众的活动”。也就是说,商场对于流行文化的传播起到了推动的作用,故[A]为本题的正确答案。[B]的错误在于它故意将那些迎合精英人士的精品店与其顾客的那种亲密的关系用在商场与普通消费者的关系上。[C]的错误在于商场满足的是普通大众的需要,而不是那些知识精英的需要。至于[D],它故意颠倒了因果关系,商场的出现推动了流行文化的发展,而并不是流行文化导致了商场的出现。而且作者在这一段结束的时候,还提到,其它的一些推动流行文化发展的`因素还有大众传媒、广告以及运动业。

23. The text suggests that immigrants now in the U.S。

本文暗示现在美国的移民

[A] are resistant to homogenization.  对于同化是抵制的。

[B] exert a great influence on American culture.  对美国文化施加了很大的影响。

[C] are hardly a threat to the common culture.  对大众文化几乎没有威胁。

[D] constitute the majority of the population.  占人口大多数。

【答案】 C

【考点】 推断题。

【分析】 题干中出现了“immigrant”这个关键单词,就是告诉考生,本题解题的关键是和移民相关的内容。只有阅读完相关的内容,才有可能正确答对本题。“immigrant”可以定位到第二段。文章说“移民正在快速适应这个大众文化”。第二句就引用记者的话说“如今的移民既未达到前所未有的水平,而且也不抵制同化”。这样一来,就可以排除[A]。后面提到美国移民的人口比率只有百分之几,显然不可能是人口的大多数,因此[D]“移民占人口大多数”可以被我们排除。不但人数不占优势,所占比率还在缩小,因此,可以说[C]“对大众文化几乎没有威胁”是合适的。至于[B]项,文中没有提及。但是考虑到人数这么少,对美国施加巨大的影响一说就不太现实了。

24. Why are Arnold Schwarzenegger and Garth Brooks mentioned in Paragraph 5?

第五段中为什么提到阿诺德・施瓦辛格和葛斯・布鲁克斯?

[A] To prove their popularity around the world.  为了证明他们在全球都很受欢迎。

[B] To reveal the public’s fear of immigrants.  为了表明公众对移民的恐惧。

[C] To give examples of successful immigrants.  为了举出成功移民的范例。

[D] To show the powerful influence of American culture.  为了展示美国文化的强大影响。

【答案】 D

篇4:考研英语真题阅读理解试题及名师解析

考研英语真题阅读理解试题及名师解析(21)

When it comes to the slowing economy, Ellen Spero isn’t biting her nails just yet. But the 47-year-old manicurist isn’t cutting, filling or polishing as many nails as she’d like to, either. Most of her clients spend $12 to $50 weekly, but last month two longtime customers suddenly stopped showing up. Spero blames the softening economy. “I’m a good economic indicator,” she says. “I provide a service that people can do without when they’re concerned about saving some dollars。” So Spero is downscaling, shopping at middle-brow Dillard’s department store near her suburban Cleveland home, instead of Neiman Marcus. “I don’t know if other clients are going to abandon me, too” she says。

Even before Alan Greenspan’s admission that America’s red-hot economy is cooling, lots of working folks had already seen signs of the slowdown themselves. From car dealerships to Gap outlets, sales have been lagging for months as shoppers temper their spending. For retailers, who last year took in 24 percent of their revenue between Thanksgiving and Christmas, the cautious approach is coming at a crucial time. Already, experts say, holiday sales are off 7 percent from last year’s pace. But don’t sound any alarms just yet. Consumers seem only mildly concerned, not panicked, and many say they remain optimistic about the economy’s long-term prospects, even as they do some modest belt-tightening。

Consumers say they’re not in despair because, despite the dreadful headlines, their own fortunes still feel pretty good. Home prices are holding steady in most regions. In Manhattan, “there’s a new gold rush happening in the $4 million to $10 million range, predominantly fed by Wall Street bonuses,” says broker Barbara Corcoran. In San Francisco, prices are still rising even as frenzied overbidding quiets. “Instead of 20 to 30 offers, now maybe you only get two or three,” says john Tealdi, a Bay Area real-estate broker. And most folks still feel pretty comfortable about their ability to find and keep a job。

Many folks see silver linings to this slowdown. Potential home buyers would cheer for lower interest rates. Employers wouldn’t mind a little fewer bubbles in the job market. Many consumers seem to have been influenced by stock-market swings, which investors now view as a necessary ingredient to a sustained boom. Diners might see an upside, too. Getting a table at Manhattan’s hot new Alain Ducasse restaurant need to be impossible. Not anymore. For that, Greenspan & Co. may still be worth toasting。

31. By “Ellen Spero isn't biting her nails just yet” (Line 1, Paragraph 1), the author means

[A] Spero can hardly maintain her business.

[B] Spero is too much engaged in her work.

[C] Spero has grown out of her bad habit.

[D] Spero is not in a desperate situation。

32. How do the public feel about the current economic situation?

[A] Optimistic.  [B] Confused.  [C] Carefree.   [D] Panicked。

33. When mentioning “the $4 million to $10 million range” (Lines 3, Paragraph 3), the author is talking about

[A] gold market. [B] real estate.  [C] stock exchange.  [D] venture investment。

34. Why can many people see “silver linings”to the economic showdown?

[A] They would benefit in certain ways。

[B] The stock market shows signs of recovery。

[C] Such a slowdown usually precedes a boom。

[D] The purchasing power would be enhanced。

35. To which of the following is the author likely to agree?

[A] A new boom, on the horizon。

[B] Tighten the belt, the single remedy。

[C] Caution all right, panic not。

[D] The more ventures, the more chances。

名师解析

31. By“Ellen Spero isn't biting her nails just yet”(Line 1, Paragraph 1), the author means

通过说“艾伦・斯拜罗还不至于咬手指”(第一段第一行),作者的意思是

[A] Spero can hardly maintain her business.   斯拜罗几乎无法维持自己的生意。

[B] Spero is too much engaged in her work.   斯拜罗过分投入于自己的工作。

[C] Spero has grown out of her bad habit.    斯拜罗已经戒掉了坏习惯。。

[D] Spero is not in a desperate situation.   斯拜罗没有到绝望的境地。

【答案】 D

【考点】 词义和句意题。

【分析】 此类题目一般会考超纲词汇、熟词僻义、特殊场合用法等,本题属于考熟词僻义。“biting one’s nails”是习语,但是绝大多数考生是不会知道的。这个时候就必须将其放在上下文中来考虑。文章第一句和第二句之间的转折词“but”是推断出这个句子意思的关键“……斯拜罗还不至于‘biting her nails’,但是(她的生意已经不如从前)这位四十七岁的指甲修饰师修剪、锉磨、上油的指甲数量却难遂其愿了。她的大多数顾客每周花费十二至五十美元,可上月两位长期客户突然不来了;她本人也不再去高档商场而去中档商场了。”由此可以推断出,第一句肯定是说她的境况还不至于糟糕到非常困难的地步。[B]、[C]肯定是可以排除的,而选项[A]“斯拜罗几乎无法维持自己的生意”则很具有迷惑性,可是如果考生把[A]带进原文读一遍就会发现这个选项和“but”无法连用,“斯拜罗几乎无法维持自己的生意,但是她的生意已经大不如从前”在逻辑上是讲不通的,所以只能选择[D],这样一来,这句话的意思就是“(虽然)斯拜罗还没有到绝望的境地,但是她的生意已经大不如从前了”,语义上完全可以接受。

32. How do the public feel about the current economic situation?

公众对目前的经济形势怎么看?

[A] Optimistic.  乐观的。

[B] Confused.  迷惑的。

[C] Carefree.   无忧无虑的。

[D] Panicked.   恐慌的。

【答案】 A

【考点】 事实细节题。

【分析】 本题属于事实细节题,考查公众对经济形势的看法。文章中关于公众的看法出现在第二段最后几句“不过,目前还不必敲什么警钟。消费者看起来只是适度关注,并没有恐慌。许多人虽然稍微勒紧腰带,但他们说对于经济的长期前景还是乐观的。”由此可以判定正确答案是选项[A]。

33. When mentioning“the $4 million to $10 million range”(Lines 2―3, Paragraph 3) the author is talking about

当提及“400万到1,000万美元之间”(第三段第二、三行)时,作者在谈论

[A] gold market.  黄金市场。

[B] real estate.   房地产。

[C] stock exchange.   证券交易所。

[D] venture investment   风险投资。

【答案】 B

【考点】 词义和句意题。

【分析】 引用别人的话来证明自己的观点叫引证,用例子来证明自己的.观点叫例证。我们来看看作者引用这句话是为了证明什么“在大多数地区房屋价格保持稳定。经纪人巴巴拉・考克兰说,在曼哈顿‘出现了对400万至1,000万美元之间房子的淘金热(抢购),资金来源以华尔街股票红利为主。’在旧金山,高价抢购现象虽然销声匿迹了,可价格依旧看涨。海湾地区房地产经纪人约翰・梯尔迪说:‘以前总是有20到30个卖主,而现在也许只有两三个。’”读懂这句话,就会明白,作者是在证明有人在投资房地产。选项[A]是出题人故意利用“gold rush”这个短语的字面意思来迷惑考生的,“gold rush”指淘金热,但是这里指的是“投资房产的狂热”。选项[C] 股票市场是利用考生可能会被华尔街误导而出的干扰项。至于选项[D]风险投资本章没有提及。

34. Why can many people see“silver linings”to the economic showdown?

为什么许多人能够在经济放缓中看到“银色的边”?

[A] They would benefit in certain ways.  他们可能以某些方式收益。。

[B] The stock market shows signs of recovery.  股票市场显现了复苏的迹象。

[C] Such a slowdown usually precedes a boom.  经济繁荣之前通常会有这样的滑坡。

[D] The purchasing power would be enhanced.  购买力会增强。

【答案】 A

【考点】 推断题。

【分析】 文章并没有直接说“银色的边”是什么意思,但是这却是理解的一个比较关键的地方。英语中有句谚语叫“Every cloud has a silver lining。”意思是“黑暗中总有一丝光明。”英美人士常用“银色的边”来形容或者比喻困难时的希望。但是仅仅了解这个短语的意思显然还是不够的,问题的关键是为什么许多人能够在经济放缓中看到希望?看原文“潜在的购房者会对利率下调欢天喜地。雇主们对就业市场少了些泡沫也并不在意。许多消费者似

篇5:考研英语真题阅读理解试题及名师解析

考研英语真题阅读理解试题及名师解析(25)

Of all the components of a good night’s sleep, dreams seem to be least within our control. In dreams, a window opens into a world where logic is suspended and dead people speak. A century ago, Freud formulated his revolutionary theory that dreams were the disguised shadows of our unconscious desires and fears; by the late 1970s, neurologists had switched to thinking of them as just “mental noise”―the random byproducts of the neural-repair work that goes on during sleep. Now researchers suspect that dreams are part of the mind’s emotional thermostat, regulating moods while the brain is “off-line。” And one leading authority says that, these intensely powerful mental events can be not only harnessed but actually brought under conscious control, to help us sleep and feel better. “It’s your dream,” says Rosalind Cartwright, chair of psychology at Chicago’s Medical Center. “If you don’t like it, change it。”

Evidence from brain imaging supports this view. The brain is as active during REM (rapid eye movement) sleep―when most vivid dreams occur―as it is when fully awake, says Dr. Eric Nofzinger at the University of Pittsburgh. But not all parts of the brain are equally involved; the limbic system (the “emotional brain”) is especially active, while the prefrontal cortex (the center of intellect and reasoning) is relatively quiet. “We wake up from dreams happy or depressed, and those feelings can stay with us all day”, says Stanford sleep researcher Dr. William Dement。

The link between dreams and emotions shows up among the patients in Cartwright’s clinic. Most people seem to have more bad dreams early in the night, progressing toward happier ones before awakening, suggesting that they are working through negative feelings generated during the day. Because our conscious mind is occupied with daily life we don’t always think about the emotional significance of the day’s events―until, it appears, we begin to dream。

And this process need not be left to the unconscious. Cartwright believes one can exercise conscious control over recurring bad dreams. As soon as you awaken, identify what is upsetting about the dream. Visualize how you would like it to end instead; the next time it occurs, try to wake up just enough to control its course. With much practice people can learn to, literally, do it in their sleep。

At the end of the day, there’s probably little reason to pay attention to our dreams at all unless they keep us from sleeping or “we wake up in a panic,” Cartwright says. Terrorism, economic uncertainties and general feelings of insecurity have increased people’s anxiety. Those suffering from persistent nightmares should seek help from a therapist. For the rest of us, the brain has its ways of working through bad feelings. Sleep―or rather dream―on it and you’ll feel better in the morning。

31. Researchers have come to believe that dreams

[A] can be modified in their courses。

[B] are susceptible to emotional changes。

[C] reflect our innermost desires and fears。

[D] are a random outcome of neural repairs。

32. By referring to the limbic system, the author intends to show

[A] its function in our dreams。

[B] the mechanism of REM sleep。

[C] the relation of dreams to emotions。

[D] its difference from the prefrontal cortex。

33. The negative feelings generated during the day tend to

[A] aggravate in our unconscious mind。

[B] develop into happy dreams。

[C] persist till the time we fall asleep。

[D] show up in dreams early at night。

34. Cartwright seems to suggest that

[A] waking up in time is essential to the ridding of bad dreams。

[B] visualizing bad dreams helps bring them under control。

[C] dreams should be left to their natural progression。

[D] dreams may not entirely belong to the unconscious。

35. What advice might Cartwright give to those who sometimes have bad dreams?

[A] Lead your life as usual。

[B] Seek professional help。

[C] Exercise conscious control。

[D] Avoid anxiety in the daytime。

名师解析

31. Researchers have come to believe that dreams  研究人员已经逐步相信梦

[A] can be modified in their courses.  可以在过程中被修改。

[B] are susceptible to emotional changes.  容易受到情感变化的影响。

[C] reflect our innermost desires and fears.  反应我们内心的欲望与恐惧。

[D] are a random outcome of neural repairs.  是神经修复的随机结果。

【答案】 A

【考点】 事实细节题。

【分析】 题干关键词“researcher”在第一段第四句出现,而在此之前,作者主要介绍了过去有关梦的定义,包括“Freud”(弗洛伊德)以及“20世纪70年代神经学家”的说法。第四句开始,文章作者提到了当代的研究者的观点“梦可以调节人的情绪,梦不仅可以被驾驭,还可以有意识地对其进行控制,梦可以改变。”通过这样的一个分析比较归纳,考生应该能够比较容易地得出[A]这个正确答案。选项[B]属于干扰项,但是出题人故意偷梁换柱,将梦影响情绪说成情绪影响梦。选项[C]是“Freud”的理论,选项[D]是70年代的理论。

32. By referring to the limbic system, the author intends to show

作者提及边缘系统是为了说明

[A] its function in our dreams.  它在我们梦中的功能。

[B] the mechanism of REM sleep.  快速眼睛运动睡眠的机制。

[C] the relation of dreams to emotions.  梦和情绪的关系。

[D] its difference from the prefrontal cortex..  它和前额皮层的区别。

【答案】 C

【考点】 推断题。

【分析】 在第二段第三句中可以找到边缘系统及其含义,然后根据上下文谈论的内容,如上文的“情感大脑”和下文的专家的话,从而判断出答案是选项[C]。其他的三项,文中提到“边缘系统属于情感大脑”,但是并没有说它在梦中的功能,所以选项[A]不正确。文中对快速眼睛运动睡眠只不过给了个简单的词汇解释,并没有对其机制进行任何的讲解,故选项[B]扩大了范围。文中提到“前额皮层”,说它是智力和推理中心,但是没有讲解它和边缘系统的关系,所以选项[D]也属于典型的无中生有型干扰项。

33. The negative feelings generated during the day tend to

白天产生的负面的.情绪趋于

[A] aggravate in our unconscious mind.  在潜意识里面加剧。

[B] develop into happy dreams.  演变成快乐的梦。

[C] persist till the time we fall asleep.  一直持续到我们睡着。

[D] show up in dreams early at night.  在夜间早些时候出现在梦里。

【答案】 D

【考点】 事实细节题。

【分析】 做此题时,要求考生能够根据上下文寻找到正确的事实,“负面情绪”这个词组出处在第三段,在此之前作者有一句非常关键的话“大多数人看上去会在夜间早些时候做噩梦,然后发展成为快乐的梦,表明他们正在力图消除白天产生的负面情绪”。可见选项[A]加剧的说法正好相反,而[C]选项显然显得过早。最大的干扰源于选项[B]和选项[D]之间的联系与区别,很多考生选择了[B],但是仔细阅读上文就会发现,负面的情绪会在恶梦里面出现,也就是在夜间早些时候出现,但是我们不能直接说负面的情绪直接演变成快乐的梦,而只能说,负面情绪通过恶梦向美梦转变的方式获得消除。所以说这道题目的干扰项[B]是出题人利用偷换概念的方式来迷惑考生的。

34. Cartwright seems to suggest that   卡特怀特似乎认为

[A] waking up in time is essential to the ridding of bad dreams。

及时苏醒对于摆脱噩梦非常重要。

[B] visualizing bad dreams helps bring them under control。

想象噩梦有利于控制它们。

[C] dreams should be left to their natural progression。

应该让梦自然发展。

[D] dreams may not entirely belong to the unconscious。

做梦可能未必完全处于无意识状态。

【答案】 D

【考点】 事实细节题。

【分析】 通过阅读所有卡特怀特的内容,终于发现可以在第四段第二句卡特怀特所相信的这一部分内容中找到答案的线索。这一段的主旨是“这一过程不一定是无意识的”,紧接着,“卡特怀特相信人能够对屡次出现的噩梦进行有意识的控制,比如:确认你梦中令你不安的事情,想象一下你想如何结束它,以及在下次做同样的梦时醒过来。”作者说这么多

篇6:考研英语真题阅读理解试题及名师解析

考研英语真题阅读理解试题及名师解析(30)

Many things make people think artists are weird. But the weirdest may be this: artists' only job is to explore emotions, and yet they choose to focus on the ones that feel bad。

This wasn't always so. The earliest forms of art, like painting and music, are those best suited for expressing joy. But somewhere from the 19th century, more artists began seeing happiness as meaningless, phony or, worst of all, boring, as we went from Wordsworth's daffodils to Baudelaire's flowers of evil。

You could argue that art became more skeptical of happiness because modern times have seen so much misery. But it's not as if earlier times didn't know perpetual war, disaster and the massacre of innocents. The reason, in fact, may be just the opposite: there is too much damn happiness in the world today。

After all, what is the one modern form of expression almost completely dedicated to depicting happiness? Advertising. The rise of anti-happy art almost exactly tracks the emergence of mass media, and with it, a commercial culture in which happiness is not just an ideal but an ideology。

People in earlier eras were surrounded by reminders of misery. They worked until exhausted, lived with few protections and died young. In the West, before mass communication and literacy, the most powerful mass medium was the church, which reminded worshippers that their souls were in danger and that they would someday be meat for worms. Given all this, they did not exactly need their art to be a bummer too。

Today the messages the average Westerner is surrounded with are not religious but commercial, and forever happy. Fast-food eaters, news anchors, text messengers, all smiling, smiling, smiling. Our magazines feature beaming celebrities and happy families in perfect homes. And since these messages have an agenda-to lure us to open our wallets―they make the very idea of happiness seem unreliable. “Celebrate!” commanded the ads for the arthritis drug Celebrex, before we found out it could increase the risk of heart attacks。

But what we forget―what our economy depends on us forgetting―is that happiness is more than pleasure without pain. The things that bring the greatest joy carry the greatest potential for loss and disappointment. Today, surrounded by promises of easy happiness, we need art to tell us, as religion once did, Memento mori: remember that you will die, that everything ends, and that happiness comes not in denying this but in living with it. It's a message even more bitter than a clove cigarette, yet, somehow, a breath of fresh air。

36. By citing the examples of poets Wordsworth and Baudelaire, the author intends to show that

[A] poetry is not as expressive of joy as painting or music。

[B] art grows out of both positive and negative feelings。

[C] poets today are less skeptical of happiness。

[D] artists have changed their focus of interest。

37. The word “bummer” (Line 5. paragraph 5) most probably means something

[A] religious.   [B] unpleasant.   [C] entertaining.   [D] commercial。

38. In the author’s opinion, advertising

[A] emerges in the wake of the anti-happy art。

[B] is a cause of disappointment for the general public。

[C] replaces the church as a major source of information。

[D] creates an illusion of happiness rather than happiness itself。

39. We can learn from the last paragraph that the author believes

[A].happiness more often than not ends in sadness。

[B] the anti-happy art is distasteful by refreshing。

[C] misery should be enjoyed rather than denied。

[D] the anti-happy art flourishes when economy booms。

40. Which of the following is true of the text?

[A] Religion once functioned as a reminder of misery。

[B] Art provides a balance between expectation and reality。

[C] People feel disappointed at the realities of modern society。

[D] Mass media are inclined to cover disasters and deaths。

名师解析

36. By citing the examples of poets Wordsworth and Baudelaire, the author intends to show that

作者引用诗人华兹华斯和波德莱尔的例子,其意图是为了表明

[A] poetry is not as expressive of joy as painting or music。

诗歌对于快乐的表达不如油画和音乐。

[B] art grows out of both positive and negative feelings。

艺术源于正面和负面情感。

[C] poets today are less skeptical of happiness。

今天的诗人对于快乐持较弱的怀疑态度。

[D] artists have changed their focus of interest。

艺术家已经改变了兴趣的焦点。

【答案】 D

【考点】 推断题。

【分析】 题干关键词“华兹华斯和波德莱尔”,定位到第二段最后一句,“as we went from Wordsworth’s daffodils to Baudelaire’s flowers of evil”通过第一段的阅读我们得知,艺术家开始关注那些令人不快的情感。而第二段说,“以前不是这样的,绘画,音乐都适合表达快乐,只是19世纪的某个时候,当我们从华兹华斯的水仙花转向波德莱尔的恶之花时,越来越多的艺术家开始把快乐看成是乏味的,虚假的,甚至是令人厌倦的。”因此我们可以得出结论,即“艺术家已经改变了兴趣的焦点”。故正确答案是[D]。[A]不合适的原因是文中没有将诗歌、绘画和音乐对于快乐的表现力进行比较。[B]从字面上来看,似乎是有道理的,但是这不是作者引用二人的目的所在,因为作者强调的是一个重点的转移。选项[C]的说法和第三段第一句的意思相反。

37. The word“bummer”(Line 5. Paragraph 5) most probably means something

“bummer”(第五段第五行)一词的最有可能的含义是

[A] religious.  宗教的             [B] unpleasant.  令人不快的

[C] entertaining.  使人愉快的      [D] commercial.  商业的

【答案】 B

【考点】 词义题。

【分析】 本题考查考生能否根据上下文来推测某个单词意思的能力。根据提示定义到第五段最后一句。第五段说“早期时候的人,生活被苦难包围着。他们工作到筋疲力尽,生活没有保障,寿命很短。最强大的大众传媒教堂也时刻提醒信徒们,他们的灵魂处于危险之中,他们有一天会成为蛆虫的食物。有了这一切,他们的确无需艺术也变成一个‘bummer’”。至此,意思很明了,即他们不再需要增加一个“令他们不快乐的事物”,“bummer”指的就是“something unpleasant”。

38. In the author’s opinion, advertising   在作者看来,广告

[A] emerges in the wake of the anti-happy art.  随着反快乐艺术而出现。

[B] is a cause of disappointment for the general public.  是引起公众失望的原因。

[C] replaces the church as a major source of information.  代替了教堂成为主要的'信息来源。

[D] creates an illusion of happiness rather than happiness itself. 创造快乐的幻觉而不是快乐本身

【答案】 D

【考点】 推断题。

【分析】 通过本题关键词“广告”(advertising)可以定位到第四段。作者提到“反快乐的艺术之兴起几乎可以追溯到大众传媒出现的时候,以及伴随大众传媒而出现的商业文化。对商业文化而言,快乐不仅仅是一种理想,更是一种意识形态”。因此[A]可以被排除,因为[A]的说法刚好与原文相反。“in the wake of”的意思就是“紧跟着,随着”。然后再定位到第六段,文章说,“西方人遭受商业信息的狂轰滥炸,而且这些信息总是很快乐。快餐食客,新闻主持人,短消息服务商,都在微笑、微笑、微笑。但是由于这些信息都有着一个自己的‘任务’(agenda),即,诱惑我们打开钱包”,所以它使得快乐的概念看上去不可靠。后面作者又举了一个药品的例子,说这个药品的宣传很好,但是后来却发现它可能增加心脏病的发病率。综合以上所说,可以看出,广告创造的是快乐的幻觉而不是快乐本身,故正确答案为[D]。[B]没有根据。[C]的错误在于代替教堂的不是广告而是大众传媒。

39. We can learn from the last paragraph that the author believes

从最后一段中我们可以得知作者相信

[A] happiness more often than not ends in sadness.

快乐常常以痛苦告终。

[B] the anti-happy art is distasteful but refreshing。

反快乐艺术令人不快但是使人耳目一新。

[C] misery should be enjoyed rather than denied。

应该

篇7:考研英语真题:阅读理解试题及名师解析

考研英语真题:阅读理解试题及名师解析(13)

Could the bad old days of economic decline be about to return? Since OPEC agreed to supply-cuts in March, the price of crude oil has jumped to almost $26 a barrel, up from less than $10 last December. This near-tripling of oil prices calls up scary memories of the 1973 oil shock, when prices quadrupled, and 1979-1980, when they also almost tripled. Both previous shocks resulted in double-digit inflation and global economic decline. So where are the headlines warning of gloom and doom this time?

The oil price was given another push up this week when Iraq suspended oil exports. Strengthening economic growth, at the same time as winter grips the northern hemisphere, could push the price higher still in the short term。

Yet there are good reasons to expect the economic consequences now to be less severe than in the 1970s. In most countries the cost of crude oil now accounts for a smaller share of the price of petrol than it did in the 1970s. In Europe, taxes account for up to four-fifths of the retail price, so even quite big changes in the price of crude have a more muted effect on pump prices than in the past。

Rich economies are also less dependent on oil than they were, and so less sensitive to swings in the oil price. Energy conservation, a shift to other fuels and a decline in the importance of heavy, energy-intensive industries have reduced oil consumption. Software, consultancy and mobile telephones use far less oil than steel or car production. For each dollar of GDP (inconstant prices) rich economies now use nearly 50% less oil than in 1973. The OECD estimates in its latest Economic Outlook that, if oil prices averaged $22 a barrel for a full year, compared with $13 in , this would increase the oil import bill in rich economies by only 0.25-0.5% of GDP. That is less than one-quarter of the income loss in 1974 or 1980. On the other hand, oil-importing emerging economies―to which heavy industry has shifted―have become more energy-intensive, and so could be more seriously squeezed。

One more reason not to lose sleep over the rise in oil prices is that, unlike the rises in the 1970s, it has not occurred against the background of general commodity-price inflation and global excess demand. A sizable portion of the world is only just emerging from economic decline. The Economist's commodity price index is broadly unchanging from a year ago. In 1973 commodity prices jumped by 70%, and in 1979 by almost 30%。

31. The main reason for the latest rise of oil price is

[A]global inflation.                   [B]reduction in supply。

[C]fast growth in economy.    [D]Iraq's suspension of exports。

32. It can be inferred from the text that the retail price of petrol will go up dramatically if

[A]price of crude rises.          [B]commodity prices rise。

[C]consumption rises.          [D]oil taxes rise。

33. The estimates in Economic Outlook show that in rich countries

[A]heavy industry becomes more energy-intensive。

[B]income loss mainly results from fluctuating crude oil prices。

[C]manufacturing industry has been seriously squeezed。

[D]oil price changes have no significant impact on GDP。

34. We can draw a conclusion from the text that

[A]oil-price shocks are less shocking now。

[B]inflation seems irrelevant to oil-price shocks。

[C]energy conservation can keep down the oil prices。

[D]the price rise of crude leads to the shrinking of heavy industry。

35. From the text we can see that the writer seems

[A]optimistic.        [B]sensitive.          [C]gloomy.          [D]scared。

名师解析

31. The main reason for the latest rise of oil price is 最近的油价上涨的主要原因是

[A]global inflation.  全球通货膨胀。

[B]reduction in supply。供应量减少。

[C]fast growth in economy.  快速的经济增长。

[D]Iraq's suspension of exports. 伊拉克暂时停止石油出口。

【答案】  B

【考点】  事实细节题。

【分析】  根据题干可以定位到第一段的第二句话“Since OPEC agreed to supply-cuts in March, the price of crude oil has jumped to almost $26 a barrel, up from less than $10 last December。”,说明由于石油输出国决定降低供给量,使得油价上升。所以本题的答案是[B]。[D]不是该现象的主要原因,因为“OPEC”的相关决定才是能够影响石油价格的走势的主要原因。

32. It can be inferred from the text that the retail price of petrol will go up dramatically if

从文中可以推断出,如果________,汽油的零售价格将会剧烈上升。

[A]price of crude rises.   原油价格上升。

[B]commodity prices rise.   日用品价格上升。

[C]consumption rises.  消费上升。

[D]oil taxes rise.  油税上升。

【答案】  D

【考点】  推断题。

【分析】  根据题干可以定位到第三段的第三句话“In Europe, taxes account for up to four-fifths of the retail price,so even quite big changes in the price of crude have a more muted effect on pump prices than in the past。.”意思是说“在欧洲,税占汽油的零售价的五分之四,因此相比以往,原油的价格变化对汽油的影响不会很明显”。也就是说税的增加会导致汽油价格的猛涨,而原油价格的变化带来的影响不会很大。本题一个理解的难度是“muted effect”,另外一个是“pump price”。“mute”表示“哑巴的,无声的,沉默的”,和“effect”连用,表示“影响不明显”;而“pump price”是一个很形象的说法,“pump”指的是“泵”,这里很形象用“pump”指代“汽油”。根据上述分析,可以得出答案是[D]。

33. The estimates in Economic Outlook show that in rich countries

《经济展望》的评估表明在富国

[A] heavy industry becomes more energy-intensive。

重工业变得更加能源密集型。

[B] income loss mainly results from fluctuating crude oil prices。

收入损失主要由于波动的原油价格造成。

[C] manufacturing industry has been seriously squeezed。

制造业面临严重影响。

[D] oil price changes have no significant impact on GDP。

油价变化对国民生产总值没有大的影响。

【答案】  D

【考点】  推断题。

【分析】  根据本题的关键词“《经济展望》的估计”可以定位到“The OECD estimates in its latest Economic outlook that, if oil prices averaged $22 a barrel for a full year, compared with $13 in 1998, this would increase the oil import bill in rich economies by only 0.25%-0.5% of GDP。”。也就是说,油价的上涨对GDP 的影响很小,只有“0.25%―0.5%”。因此我们可以得出答案[D]。

34. We can draw a conclusion from the text that  从文中我们可以得出的结论是

[A] oil-price shocks are less shocking now. 油价冲击已经不再那么骇人听闻。

[B] inflation seems irrelevant to oil-price shocks. 通货膨胀看起来和油价冲击无关。

[C] energy conservation can keep down the oil prices. 能源储备能够使油价下降。

[D] the price rise of crude leads to the shrinking of heavy industry。

原油价格的上升导致重工业的'萎缩。

【答案】  A

【考点】  文章主旨题。

【分析】  本题的几个选项需要通篇理解。文章第三段指出“油价的经济影响不会那么严重”,作者指出其原因是“原油价格占汽油价格的比例不高,发达国家对石油的依赖减弱,此次涨价的背景不一样了”。文章最后一段说“这次油价上涨与20世纪70年代的上涨不同,对各国的影响也基本没有反映出来,连物价基本都没有变动”,也就是说,油价冲击已经不是那么可怕。所以答案是[A]。

35. From the text we can see that the writer seems  从本文中我们可以看出作者看上去是

[A] optimistic. 乐观的。             [B] sensitive。敏感的。

篇8:考研英语真题:阅读理解试题及名师解析

考研英语真题:阅读理解试题及名师解析(14)

The Supreme Court's decisions on physician-assisted suicide carry important implications for how medicine seeks to relieve dying patients of pain and suffering。

Although it ruled that there is no constitutional right to physician-assisted suicide, the Court in effect supported the medical principle of “double effect”, a centuries-old moral principle holding that an action having two effects―a good one that is intended and a harmful one that is foreseen―is permissible if the actor intends only the good effect。

Doctors have used that principle in recent years to justify using high doses of morphine to control terminally ill patients' pain, even though increasing dosages will eventually kill the patient。

Nancy Dubler, director of Montefiore Medical Center, contends that the principle will shield doctors who “until now have very, very strongly insisted that they could not give patients sufficient mediation to control their pain if that might hasten death.”

George Annas, chair of the health law department at Boston University, maintains that, as long as a doctor prescribes a drug for a legitimate medical purpose, the doctor has done nothing illegal even if the patient uses the drug to hasten death. “It's like surgery, ”he says. “We don't call those deaths homicides because the doctors didn't intend to kill their patients, although they risked their death. If you're a physician, you can risk your patient's suicide as long as you don't intend their suicide.”

On another level, many in the medical community acknowledge that the assisted-suicide debate has been fueled in part by the despair of patients for whom modem medicine has prolonged the physical agony of dying。

Just three weeks before the Court's ruling on physician-assisted suicide, the National Academy of Science (NAS) released a two-volume report, Approaching Death: Improving Care at the End of Life. It identifies the undertreatment of pain and the aggressive use of “ineffectual and forced medical procedures that may prolong and even dishonor the period of dying” as the twin problems of end-of-life care。

The profession is taking steps to require young doctors to train in hospices, to test knowledge of aggressive pain management therapies, to develop a Medicare billing code for hospital-based care, and to develop new standards for assessing and treating pain at the end of life。

Annas says lawyers can play a key role in insisting that these well-meaning medical initiatives translate into better care. “Large numbers of physicians seem unconcerned with the pain their patients are needlessly and predictably suffering, ”to the extent that it constitutes “systematic patient abuse。” He says medical licensing boards “must make it clear ... that painful deaths are presumptively ones that are incompetently managed and should result in license suspension。”

36. From the first three paragraphs, we learn that

[A]doctors used to increase drug dosages to control their patients' pain。

[B]it is still illegal for doctors to help the dying end their lives。

[C]the Supreme Court strongly opposes physician-assisted suicide。

[D]patients have no constitutional right to commit suicide。

37. Which of the following statements its true according to the text?

[A]Doctors will be held guilty if they risk their patients' death。

[B]Modern medicine has assisted terminally ill patients in painless recovery。

[C]The Court ruled that high-dosage pain-relieving medication can be prescribed。

[D]A doctor's medication is no longer justified by his intentions。

38. According to the NAS's report, one of the problems in end-of-life care is

[A]prolonged medical procedures。

[B]inadequate treatment of pain。

[C]systematic drug abuse。

[D]insufficient hospital care。

39. Which of the following best defines the word “aggressive" (line 3, paragraph 7)?

[A]Bold.               [B]Harmful.                [C]Careless.          [D]Desperate。

40. George Annas would probably agree that doctors should be punished if they

[A]manage their patients incompetently。

[B]give patients more medicine than needed。

[C]reduce drug dosages for their patients。

[D]prolong the needless suffering of the patients。

名师解析

36. From the first three paragraphs, we learn that    从前三段我们得知

[A] doctors used to increase drug dosages to control their patients’ pain。

医生过去常常增加药物剂量来控制病人的病痛。

[B] it is still illegal for doctors to help the dying end their lives。

医生帮助病危者结束生命仍然是违法的。

[C] the Supreme Court strongly opposes physician-assisted suicide。

最高法院强烈反对医助自杀。

[D] patients have no constitutional right to commit suicide。

病人没有宪法赋予的自杀权利。

【答案】  B

【考点】  事实细节题。

【分析】  本题针对第一到第三段的所有内容进行了测试,选项[A]的相关信息可以定位到第三段,但是文中说“近几年医生才用这个原则为自己的行为辩护”。文中无法得出“过去常常”的说法。选项[B]可以定位到第二段,文中提到“宪法没有赋予这样的权利”。所以可以说,本答案是正确的。选项[C]可以定位到第二段,但是法院是支持这样的做法的。至于[D],显然是错的。

37. Which of the following statements is true according to the text?

根据文章,下面哪一个说法是正确的?

[A] Doctors will be held guilty if they risk their patients’ death。

如果医生冒病人生命的危险,他们将被判有罪。

[B] Modern medicine has assisted terminally ill patients in painless recovery。

现代医学已经帮助晚期病人进行无痛康复。

[C] The Court ruled that high-dosage pain-relieving medication can be prescribed。

法院判决,医生可以开大剂量的镇疼药。

[D] A doctor's medication is no longer justified by his intentions。

医生用药是否合法不再取决于他的意图。

【答案】  C

【考点】  事实细节题。

【分析】  由于本题属于事实细节判断题,所以只有对每一个选项都进行辨析。选项[A]可以定位到第五段“Annas”的话。话中提到“只要医生不是想杀死病人,那么他们的死亡就不能被称为谋杀”。因此可以判定[A]不正确。[B]说病危者的无痛康复,在文中没有提到康复问题。[C]可以从第二段中找到,高等法院认为只要医生是出于好意,则可以去做。因此可以得出[C]是正确的。[D]错误是因为事实上,医生的意图在对于行为是否合法上面是非常重要的。

38. According to the NAS’s report, one of the problems in end-of-life care is

根据国家科学院(NAS)的报告,临终护理存在的'一个问题是

[A]prolonged medical procedures. 延长了的医疗过程。

[B]inadequate treatment of pain. 对病痛处理不力。

[C]systematic drug abuse. 一贯的药物滥用。

[D]insufficient hospital care.   医院护理不力。

【答案】  B

【考点】  事实细节题。

【分析】  本题可以定位到第七段的第二句话中的“the undertreatment of pain”以及“the aggressive use of‘ineffectual and forced medical procedures that may prolong and even dishonor the period of dying’”。一个是“对病人的疼痛治疗不力”。另外一个是“强行使用无效的治疗方法延长生命,使得病人的晚期失去尊严”。因此,这里的答案应该是[C]。

39. Which of the following best defines the word“aggressive”(Line 3, Paragraph 7)?

以下哪一个单词最好的解释了单词“aggressive”(第七段第三行)的意思?

[A]Bold.  大胆的。      [B]Harmful.  有害的。

[C]Careless.  粗心的。  [D]Desperate.  绝望的。

【答案】  A

【考点】  词义题。

【分析】  这个单词的所在句“It identifies the undertreatment

篇9:考研英语真题阅读理解试题及名师解析

考研英语真题阅读理解试题及名师解析(24)

Do you remember all those years when scientists argued that smoking would kill us but the doubters insisted that we didn’t know for sure? That the evidence was inconclusive, the science uncertain? That the antismoking lobby was out to destroy our way of life and the government should stay out of the way? Lots of Americans bought that nonsense, and over three decades, some 10 million smokers went to early graves。

There are upsetting parallels today, as scientists in one wave after another try to awaken us to the growing threat of global warming. The latest was a panel from the National Academy of Sciences, enlisted by the White House, to tell us that the Earth’s atmosphere is definitely warming and that the problem is largely man-made. The clear message is that we should get moving to protest ourselves. The president of the National Academy, Bruce Alberts, added this key point in the preface to the panel’s report: “Science never has all the answers。” But science does provide us with the best available guide to the future, and it is critical that our nation and the world base important policies on the best judgments that science can provide concerning the future consequences of present actions。

Just as on smoking, voices now come from many quarters insisting that the science about global warming is incomplete, that it’s OK to keep pouring fumes into the air until we know for sure. This is a dangerous game: by the time 100 percent of the evidence is in, it may be too late. With the risks obvious and growing, a prudent people would take out an insurance policy now。

Fortunately, the White House is starting to pay attention. But it’s obvious that a majority of the president’s advisers still don’t take global warming seriously. Instead of a plan of action, they continue to press for more research―a classic case of “paralysis by analysis。”

To serve as responsible stewards of the planet, we must press forward on deeper atmospheric and oceanic research. But research alone is inadequate. If the Administration won’t take the legislative initiative, Congress should help to begin fashioning conservation measures. A bill by Democratic Senator Robert Byrd of West Virginia, which would offer financial incentives for private industry, is a promising start. Many see that the country is getting ready to build lots of new power plants to meet our energy needs. If we are ever going to protect the atmosphere, it is crucial that those new plants be environmentally sound。

26. An argument made by supporters of smoking was that

[A] there was no scientific evidence of the correlation between smoking and death。

[B] the number of early deaths of smokers in the past decades was insignificant。

[C] people had the freedom to choose their own way of life。

[D] antismoking people were usually talking nonsense。

27. According to Bruce Alberts, science can serve as

[A] a protector。

[B] a judge。

[C] a critic。

[D] a guide。

28. What does the author mean by “paralysis by analysis” (Last line, Paragraph 4)?

[A] Endless studies kill action。

[B] Careful investigation reveals truth。

[C] Prudent planning hinders progress。

[D] Extensive research helps decision-making。

29. According to the author, what should the Administration do about global warming?

[A] Offer aid to build cleaner power plants。

[B] Raise public awareness of conservation。

[C] Press for further scientific research。

[D] Take some legislative measures。

30. The author associates the issue of global warming with that of smoking because

[A] they both suffered from the government’s negligence。

[B] a lesson from the latter is applicable to the former。

[C] the outcome of the latter aggravates the former。

[D] both of them have turned from bad to worse。

名师解析

26. An argument made by supporters of smoking was that

吸烟的支持者提出的观点是

[A] there was no scientific evidence of the correlation between smoking and death。

没有科学证据证明吸烟和死亡之间存在相互联系。

[B] the number of early deaths of smokers in the past decades was insignificant。

在过去的几十年中过早死亡的吸烟者人数不多。

[C] people had the freedom to choose their own way of life。

人们有选择自己生活方式的自由。

[D] antismoking people were usually talking nonsense。

反对吸烟的人通常一派胡言。

【答案】 C

【考点】 事实细节题。

【分析】 从第一段可以看出,其实支持吸烟的人的理由不止一个,比如证据不够充分,科学也不能确定,反对吸烟的游说是为了毁掉我们的生活方式等等。[A]选项是出题人故意扩大范围,夸大选项,故意绝对化,原文只是证据不足,而不是没有证据。[B]选项说死亡人数不多,而原文提到的“1,000万”可不是小数字。[D]选项不符合的原因是作者说支持吸烟的人的话是“nonsense”(一派胡言),而不是反对吸烟的人的话。

27. According to Bruce Alberts, science can serve as

根据布鲁斯・阿尔伯特的观点,科学能充当

[A] a protector. 保护人。 [B] a judge. 评判人、法官。

[C] a critic. 批评者。    [D] a guide. 向导。

【答案】 D

【考点】 事实细节题。

【分析】 文章第二段第四句中有这样的话“科学从来都不能够提供所有的答案,但是科学却能够为我们提供通向未来的最佳引导”。

28. What does the author mean by “paralysis by analysis” (Last line, Paragraph 4)?

作者通过“分析性瘫痪症”(第四段最后一行)表达什么意思?

[A] Endless studies kill action. 无穷尽的研究遏制了行动。

[B] Careful investigation reveals truth. 详细的研究揭示了真理。

[C] Prudent planning hinders. 谨慎的计划阻碍了进展。

[D] Extensive research helps decision-making. 广泛的研究帮助决策。

【答案】 A

【考点】 上下文暗示题。

【分析】 文章第四段说“白宫已经开始关注此事,但是总统顾问中的许多人仍然没有认真对待地球变暖问题,他们不但没有制定行动计划,反而继续要求进行更多的研究――这是典型的‘分析性麻痹症’”。也就是总统顾问中的许多人通过分析、研究来拖延行动。所以这里应该选择[A]。

29. According to the author, what should the Administration do about global warming?

根据本文作者的看法,政府对全球变暖应该做些什么?

[A] Offer aid to build cleaner power plants.  提供帮助,建造更加清洁的电厂。

[B] Raise public awareness of conservation.  提高公众的环保意识。

[C] Press for further scientific research.  敦促更进一步的科学研究。

[D] Take some legislative measures.  采取一些立法的措施。

【答案】 D

【考点】 推断题。

【分析】 文章的最后一段里面提到“只有研究是不够的,如果政府不采取法律行动,国会应该开始制定保护措施。”[A]选项很具有干扰性,因为原文中出现了“电厂”的概念,这是出题人根据文章最后两句话“很多人看见国家正在做好准备来修建大量的电厂来满足我们的.能源需求。但是如果我们要保护我们的大气,这些电厂必须是环保的。”来编写的干扰项,采取环保措施是“国会”(congress)做的。[B]选项说政府应该提高公众的环保意识,这一点文章没有提到。[C]选项是显然不对的,因为上文刚说光有研究是不够的。只有[D]选项采取立法措施是“政府”(administration)应该做的。

30. The author associates the issue of global warming with that of smoking because

作者把全球变暖和吸烟联系在一起是因为

[A] they both suffered from the government’s negligence。

它们二者都被政府忽视。

[B] a lesson from the latter is applicable to the former。

从后者吸取的教训适用于前者。

[C] the outcome of the latter aggravates the former。

后者的结果恶化了前者。

[D] both of them have turned from bad to worse。

它们二者都已经日益恶化。

【答案】 B

【考点】 推断题。

【分析】 本题出题思路是考生能否把握住作者将吸烟和全球变暖问题联系在一起的意图。在第一段,作者提到“几十年前吸烟问题被忽视带来严重后果;而现在这样的忽视又发生在全球变暖问

篇10:考研英语真题阅读理解试题及名师解析

考研英语真题阅读理解试题及名师解析(29)

When prehistoric man arrived in new parts of the world, something strange happened to the large animals: they suddenly became extinct. Smaller species survived. The large, slow-growing animals were easy game, and were quickly hunted to extinction. Now something similar could be happening in the oceans.

That the seas are being overfished has been known for years. What researchers such as Ransom Myers and Boris Worm have shown is just how fast things are changing. They have looked at half a century of data from fisheries around the world. Their methods do not attempt to estimate the actual biomass (the amount of living biological matter) of fish species in particular parts of the ocean, but rather changes in that biomass over time. According to their latest paper published in Nature, the biomass of large predators (animals that kill and eat other animals) in a new fishery is reduced on average by 80% within 15 years of the start of exploitation. In some long-fished areas, it has halved again since then。

Dr. Worm acknowledges that these figures are conservative. One reason for this is that fishing technology has improved. Today’s vessels can find their prey using satellites and sonar, which were not available 50 years ago. That means a higher proportion of what is in the sea is being caught, so the real difference between present and past is likely to be worse than the one recorded by changes in catch sizes. In the early days, too, longlines would have been more saturated with fish. Some individuals would therefore not have been caught, since no baited hooks would have been available to trap them, leading to an underestimate of fish stocks in the past. Furthermore, in the early days of longline fishing, a lot of fish were lost to sharks after they had been hooked. That is no longer a problem, because there are fewer sharks around now。

Dr. Myers and Dr. Worm argue that their work gives a correct baseline, which future management efforts must take into account. They believe the data support an idea current among marine biologists, that of the “shifting baseline”. The notion is that people have failed to detect the massive changes which have happened in the ocean because they have been looking back only a relatively short time into the past. That matters because theory suggests that the maximum sustainable yield that can be cropped from a fishery comes when the biomass of a target species is about 50% of its original levels. Most fisheries are well below that, which is a bad way to do business。

31. The extinction of large prehistoric animals is noted to suggest that

[A] large animals were vulnerable to the changing environment。

[B] small species survived as large animals disappeared。

[C] large sea animals may face the same threat today。

[D] slow-growing fish outlive fast-growing ones。

32. We can infer from Dr. Myers and Dr. Worm’s paper that

[A] the stock of large predators in some old fisheries has reduced by 90%。

[B] there are only half as many fisheries as there were 15 years ago。

[C] the catch sizes in new fisheries are only 20% of the original amount。

[D] the number of larger predators dropped faster in new fisheries than in the old。

33. By saying “these figures are conservative” (Line 1, Paragraph 3), Dr. Worm means that

[A] fishing technology has improved rapidly。

[B] the catch-sizes are actually smaller then recorded。

[C] the marine biomass has suffered a greater loss。

[D] the data collected so far are out of date。.

34. Dr. Myers and other researchers hold that

[A] people should look for a baseline that can work for a longer time。

[B] fisheries should keep the yields below 50% of the biomass。

[C] the ocean biomass should be restored to its original level。

[D] people should adjust the fishing baseline to the changing situation。

35. The author seems to be mainly concerned with most fisheries’

[A] management efficiency。

[B] biomass level。

[C] catch-size limits。

[D] technological application。

名师解析

31. The extinction of large prehistoric animals is noted to suggest that

提及大型史前动物的灭绝是为了说明

[A] large animals were vulnerable to the changing environment。

大型动物容易受到环境变化的影响。

[B] small species survived as large animals disappeared。

当大型动物消失的时候小型物种存活了下来。

[C] large sea animals may face the same threat today。

大型海洋动物今天面临相同的威胁。

[D] slow-growing fish outlive fast-growing ones。

成长缓慢的鱼要比成长快速的鱼活得长。

【答案】 C

【考点】 推断题。

【分析】 通过题干关键词“大型史前动物的灭绝”可以定位到第一段。作者提到它们的灭绝是由于人类的捕杀,作者在第一段最后一句提到,“如今类似的事情可能会发生在海洋中”。因此可以得出结论,即,作者是为了引用大型史前动物的灭绝来引出海洋物种同样面临着由于人类过度捕捞而灭绝的这个话题,故正确答案是[C]。[A]、[B]、[D]选项都没有能够表达出作者的这个意图,而只是很浅层去分析表象。

32. We can infer from Dr. Myers and Dr. Worm’s paper that

从迈尔斯博士和沃尔姆博士的论文中我们可以推断出

[A] the stock of large predators in some old fisheries has reduced by 90%。

一些老渔场里大型捕食类鱼种的贮存量已经减少了90%。

[B] there are only half as many fisheries as there were 15 years ago。

现在渔场的数量只有15年前数量的`一半。

[C] the catch sizes in new fisheries are only 20% of the original amount。

新的渔场中的捕捉数量是原来数量的20%。

[D] the number of larger predators dropped faster in new fisheries than in the old。

新的渔场里大型捕食类鱼种的数目下降比旧的渔场快。

【答案】 A

【考点】 推断题。

【分析】 根据题干关键词“Dr Myers and Dr. Worm’s paper”可以定位到第二段最后一句,“根据他们发表在《自然》杂志上的最新论文,一个新的渔场在被开发后的15年中大型捕食类鱼种的生物量平均减少了80%。在有些长期捕捞的地区,自那以后,这个数量又减少了一半。”本句的理解难点就是“In some long-fished areas, it has halved again since then。”这句话里面的“since”从什么时间开始计算,影响本题的解答。“since”指的是从15年结束后开始算呢,还是从15年的第一年开始算。如果是前者,则答案是[A],因为新的平均下降80%,然后又下降了一半,这个意思就是一共下降了90%;如果是后者,则得出旧渔场大型捕食类鱼种的减少速度低于新渔场,而且只有50%。“since”接时间,后面必须是一个时间点。如果“since”后面接的不是一个时间点而是时间段,则从该时间段结束的时候开始算。例句:“It has been 10 years since I lived in Beijing。”这句话的意思不是“我在北京十年了”,而是“我离开北京十年了”。因此本题的正确答案是[A]。“since”接的是15年结束后的那个点;而且这句话里面还有一个很关键的词“again”(再次),也很明显说明这里指的是“在下降80%之后,又再次减少了一半”,即“余下的20%又减少了一半,只剩下10%”。

33. By saying“these figures are conservative”(Line 1, Paragraph 3), Dr worm means that

沃尔姆博士说“these figures are conservative”(第三段第一行),他的意思是

[A] fishing technology has improved rapidly.  捕鱼的技术已经得到快速提高。

[B] the catch-sizes are actually smaller than recorded.  捕鱼量比实际记录的少。

[C] the marine biomass has suffered a greater loss.  海洋生物量已经蒙受了更大的损失。

[D] the data collected so far are out of date.  目前收集的数据已经过时了。

【答案】 C

【考点】 推断题。

【分析】 根据关键词“conservative”的提示定位到第三段第一句。作者说“这个数据是保守的,因为捕鱼的技术已经提高了。卫星和声纳定位仪都用上了。这就意味着现在海里有更高比例的海洋生物被捕捞了。现在和过去的真正差异可能比通过捕捞记录的反映出来的差异更要糟糕。”接下来的一句话的意思是“以前一些抓不住的海洋生物现在都可以抓住了,以前被鲨鱼抢走的,现在由于鲨鱼都不见了,自然被捕捞的就更多了。”作者同时提到,“由于以前

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